Corporate governance codes
We are committed to high standards of corporate governance. We have complied during 2012 with the applicable code provisions of (i) The UK Corporate Governance Code issued by the Financial Reporting Council; (ii) the Code on Corporate Governance Practices set out in Appendix 14 to the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, from 1 January 2012 until its amendment and replacement by the Hong Kong Corporate Governance Code on 1 April 2012; and (iii) the Hong Kong Corporate Governance Code from 1 April 2012 to 31 December 2012, save that the Group Risk Committee (all the members of which are independent non-executive Directors), which was established in accordance with the recommendations of the Report on Governance in UK banks and other financial industry entities, is responsible for the oversight of internal control (other than internal control over financial reporting) and risk management systems (Hong Kong Corporate Governance Code provision C.3.3 paragraphs (f), (g) and (h)). If there were no Group Risk Committee, these matters would be the responsibility of the Group Audit Committee. The UK Corporate Governance Code is available at www.frc.org.uk and the Hong Kong Corporate Governance Code is available at www.hkex.com.hk .
The Board has adopted a code of conduct for transactions in HSBC Group securities by Directors. The code of conduct complies with The Model Code in the Listing Rules of the FSA and with The Model Code for Securities Transactions by Directors of Listed Issuers ('Hong Kong Model Code') set out in the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, save that The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited has granted certain waivers from strict compliance with the Hong Kong Model Code. The waivers granted by The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited primarily take into account accepted practices in the UK, particularly in respect of employee share plans. Following specific enquiry, each Director has confirmed that he or she has complied with the code of conduct for transactions in HSBC Group securities throughout the year save that, on 15 June 2012, an independent non-executive Director acquired an interest as beneficial owner in 3,950 retail bonds and as non-beneficial owner in 1,170 retail bonds of RMB10,000 each issued by HSBC Bank plc before giving notification and receiving written clearance to deal. On 10 January 2013, an independent non-executive Director disposed of an interest as beneficial owner in 500 units of euro-denominated preferred securities of EUR1,000 each issued by HSBC Capital Funding (Euro 2) L.P. before giving notification. All Directors have since been reminded of their obligations under the code of conduct for transactions in HSBC Group Securities.
Differences in HSBC Holdings/New York Stock Exchange corporate governance practices
Under the NYSE's corporate governance rules for listed companies and the applicable rules of the SEC, as a NYSE listed foreign private issuer, HSBC Holdings must disclose any significant ways in which its corporate governance practices differ from those followed by US companies subject to NYSE listing standards. HSBC Holdings believes the following to be the significant differences between its corporate governance practices and NYSE corporate governance rules applicable to US companies.
US companies listed on the NYSE are required to adopt and disclose corporate governance guidelines. The Listing Rules of the FSA require each listed company incorporated in the UK to include in its Annual Report and Accounts a statement of how it has applied the principles of The UK Corporate Governance Code and a statement as to whether or not it has complied with the code provisions of The UK Corporate Governance Code throughout the accounting period covered by the Annual Report and Accounts. A company that has not complied with the Code provisions, or complied with only some of the Code provisions or (in the case of provisions whose requirements are of a continuing nature) complied for only part of an accounting period covered by the report, must specify the Code provisions with which it has not complied, and (where relevant) for what part of the reporting period such non-compliance continued, and give reasons for any noncompliance.
As stated above, HSBC Holdings complied throughout 2012 with the applicable code provisions of The UK Corporate Governance Code. The UK Corporate Governance Code does not require HSBC Holdings to disclose the full range of corporate governance guidelines with which it complies.
Under NYSE standards, companies are required to have a nominating/corporate governance committee, composed entirely of independent directors. In addition to identifying individuals qualified to become Board members, this committee must develop and recommend to the Board a set of corporate governance principles. Our Nomination Committee complies with The UK Corporate Governance Code, which requires a majority of members to be independent. The majority of members of the Committee during 2012 were independent non-executive Directors. The Committee's terms of reference do not require the Committee to develop and recommend corporate governance principles for HSBC Holdings. As stated above, HSBC Holdings is subject to the corporate governance principles of The UK Corporate Governance Code.
Pursuant to NYSE listing standards, non-management directors must meet on a regular basis without management present and independent directors must meet separately at least once per year.
During 2012, the HSBC Holdings' non-executive Directors and the Group Chairman met twice without the other executive Directors. The non-executive Directors also met twice without the Group Chairman, including to appraise the Group Chairman's performance. HSBC Holdings' practice, in this regard, complies with The UK Corporate Governance Code.
In accordance with the requirements of The UK Corporate Governance Code, HSBC Holdings discloses in its annual report how the Board, its committees and the Directors are evaluated (on pages 355-356) and provides extensive information regarding Directors' compensation in the Directors' Remuneration Report (on pages 347 to 355). The terms of reference of HSBC Holdings' Audit, Nomination, Remuneration and Risk Committees are available at www.hsbc.com/boardcommittees .
NYSE listing standards require US companies to adopt a code of business conduct and ethics for directors, officers and employees, and promptly disclose any waivers of the code for directors or executive officers. In December 2009, the Board endorsed three HSBC Values statements underpinned by the continued use of our Business Principles, in replacement of the Group Business Principles and Values. In addition to the HSBC Values statements and Business Principles (and previously the Group Business Principles and Values), which apply to the employees of all our companies, pursuant to the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act the Board of HSBC Holdings has adopted a Code of Ethics applicable to the Group Chairman and the Group Chief Executive, as the principal executive officers, and to the Group Finance Director and Group Chief Accounting Officer. HSBC Holdings' Code of Ethics is available on www.hsbc.com/codeofethics or from the Group Company Secretary at 8 Canada Square, London E14 5HQ. If the Board amends or waives the provisions of the Code of Ethics, details of the amendment or waiver will appear at the same website address. During 2012, HSBC Holdings made no amendments to its Code of Ethics and granted no waivers from its provisions. The references to the standards to be followed by all employees reflect the Board's endorsement of HSBC Values statements underpinned by the continued use of our Business Principles. The HSBC Values statements and Business Principles are available on www.hsbc.com/groupvalues .
Under NYSE listing rules applicable to US companies, independent directors must comprise a majority of the Board of directors. Currently, two thirds of HSBC Holdings' Directors are independent.
Under The UK Corporate Governance Code the HSBC Holdings Board determines whether a Director is independent in character and judgement and whether there are relationships or circumstances which are likely to affect, or could appear to affect, the Director's judgement.
Under the NYSE rules a director cannot qualify as independent unless the board affirmatively determines that the director has no material relationship with the listed company; in addition the NYSE rules prescribe a list of circumstances in which a director cannot be independent.
The UK Corporate Governance Code requires a company's board to assess director independence by affirmatively concluding that the director is independent of management and free from any business or other relationship that could materially interfere with the exercise of independent judgement. Lastly, a chief executive officer of a US company listed on the NYSE must annually certify that he or she is not aware of any violation by the company of NYSE corporate governance standards. In accordance with NYSE listing rules applicable to foreign private issuers, HSBC Holdings' Group Chief Executive is not required to provide the NYSE with this annual compliance certification. However, in accordance with rules applicable to both US companies and foreign private issuers, the Group Chief Executive is required promptly to notify the NYSE in writing after any executive officer becomes aware of any material non-compliance with the NYSE corporate governance standards applicable to HSBC Holdings.
HSBC Holdings is required to submit annual and interim written affirmations of compliance with applicable NYSE corporate governance standards, similar to the affirmations required of NYSE-listed US companies.