Under the Hong Kong Code the Audit Committee should be responsible for the oversight of all risk management and internal control systems. HSBC’s Group Risk Committee is responsible for oversight of internal control, other than internal control over financial reporting, and risk management systems. This is permitted under the UK Corporate Governance Code.
The Board has codified obligations for transactions in HSBC Group securities in accordance with the requirements of the Market Abuse Regulation and the rules governing the listing of securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (‘HKEx’), save that the HKEx has granted waivers from strict compliance with the rules that take into account accepted practices in the UK, particularly in respect of employee share plans. HSBC is in discussion with the HKEx to update these waivers to take account of the Market Abuse Regulation.
Following specific enquiry, each Director has confirmed that he or she has complied with their obligations in respect of transacting in Group securities during the year.
"Differences in HSBC Holdings/New York Stock Exchange corporate governance practices"
Under the NYSE’s corporate governance rules for listed companies and the applicable rules of the SEC, as a NYSE-listed foreign private issuer, HSBC Holdings must disclose any significant ways in which its corporate governance practices differ from those followed by US companies subject to NYSE listing standards. HSBC Holdings believes the following to be the significant differences between its corporate governance practices and NYSE corporate governance rules applicable to US companies.
US companies listed on the NYSE are required to adopt and disclose corporate governance guidelines. The Listing Rules of the FCA require each listed company incorporated in the UK to include in its Annual Report and Accounts a statement of how it has applied the principles of The UK Corporate Governance Code issued by the Financial Reporting Council and a statement as to whether or not it has complied with the code provisions of The UK Corporate Governance Code throughout the accounting period covered by the Annual Report and Accounts. A company that has not complied with the code provisions, or complied with only some of the code provisions or (in the case of provisions whose requirements are of a continuing nature) complied for only part of an accounting period covered by the report, must specify the code provisions with which it has not complied, and (where relevant) for what part of the reporting period such non-compliance continued, and give reasons for any non-compliance. As stated above, HSBC Holdings complied throughout 2016 with the applicable code provisions of The UK Corporate Governance Code. The UK Corporate Governance Code does not require HSBC Holdings to disclose the full range of corporate governance guidelines with which it complies.
Under NYSE standards, companies are required to have a nominating/corporate governance committee composed entirely of directors determined to be independent in accordance with the NYSE’s corporate governance rules. All of the members of the Nomination Committee during 2016 were independent non-executive Directors, as determined in accordance with the UK Corporate Governance Code. The terms of reference of our Nomination Committee, which comply with the UK Corporate Governance Code, require a majority of members to be independent non-executive Directors. In addition to identifying individuals qualified to become Board members, a nominating/corporate governance committee must develop and recommend to the Board a set of corporate governance principles. The Nomination Committee's terms of reference do not require it to develop and recommend corporate governance principles for HSBC Holdings, as HSBC Holdings is subject to the corporate governance principles of The UK Corporate Governance Code. The Board of Directors is responsible under its terms of reference for the development and review of Group policies and practices on corporate governance.
Under the NYSE standards, companies are required to have a compensation committee composed entirely of directors determined to be independent in accordance with the NYSE's corporate governance rules. All of the members of the Group Remuneration Committee during 2016 were independent non-executive Directors, as determined in accordance with the UK Corporate Governance Code. The terms of reference of our Group Remuneration Committee, which comply with the UK Corporate Governance Code, require at least three members to be independent non-executive Directors. A compensation committee must review and approve corporate goals and objectives relevant to chief executive officer compensation and evaluate a chief executive officer's performance in light of these goals and objectives. The Group Remuneration Committee's terms of reference require it to review and approve performance-based remuneration of the executive Directors by reference to corporate goals and objectives that are set by the Board of Directors.
Pursuant to NYSE listing standards, non-management directors must meet on a regular basis without management present and independent directors must meet separately at least once per year.
During 2016, the non-executive Directors and the Group Chairman met seven times without the other executive Directors. The non-executive Directors also met seven times without the Group Chairman, including to appraise the Group Chairman's performance. HSBC Holdings' practice, in this regard, complies with The UK Corporate Governance Code.
In accordance with the requirements of The UK Corporate Governance Code, HSBC Holdings discloses in its Annual Report and Accounts how the Board, its committees and the Directors are evaluated (on page 170) and provides extensive information regarding Directors' compensation in the Directors' Remuneration Report (on page 191). The terms of reference of HSBC Holdings' Group Audit, Group Nomination, Group Remuneration and Group Risk Committees are available at www.hsbc.com/about-hsbc/corporate-governance/board-committees.
NYSE listing standards require US companies to adopt a code of business conduct and ethics for directors, officers and employees, and promptly disclose any waivers of the code for directors or executive officers. In 2009, the Board endorsed three HSBC Values statements underpinned by the continued use of our Business Principles, in replacement of the Group Business Principles and Values. In addition to the HSBC Values statements and Business Principles (and previously the Group Business Principles and Values), which apply to the employees of all our companies, pursuant to the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act the Board of HSBC Holdings has adopted a Code of Ethics applicable to the Group Chairman and the Group Chief Executive, as the principal executive officers, and to the Group Finance Director and Group Chief Accounting Officer. HSBC Holdings' Code of Ethics is available on www.hsbc.com/about-hsbc/corporate-governance/corporate-governance-codes/obligations-of-senior-financial-officers or from the Group Company Secretary at 8 Canada Square, London E14 5HQ. If the Board amends or waives the provisions of the Code of Ethics, details of the amendment or waiver will appear at the same website address. During 2016, HSBC Holdings made no amendments to its Code of Ethics and granted no waivers from its provisions. The references to the standards to be followed by all employees reflect the Board's endorsement of HSBC Values statements underpinned by the continued use of our Business Principles. The HSBC Values statements and Business Principles are available on www.hsbc.com/our-approach/our-values.
Under NYSE listing rules applicable to US companies, independent directors must comprise a majority of the board of directors. Currently, more than three-quarters of HSBC Holdings' Directors are independent.
Under The UK Corporate Governance Code the HSBC Holdings Board determines whether a Director is independent in character and judgement and whether there are relationships or circumstances that are likely to affect, or could appear to affect, the Director's judgement. Under the NYSE rules a director cannot qualify as independent unless the board affirmatively determines that the director has no material relationship with the listed company; in addition the NYSE rules prescribe a list of circumstances in which a director cannot be independent. The UK Corporate Governance Code requires a company's board to assess director independence by affirmatively concluding that the director is independent of management and free from any business or other relationship that could materially interfere with the exercise of independent judgement. Lastly, a chief executive officer of a US company listed on the NYSE must annually certify that he or she is not aware of any violation by the company of NYSE corporate governance standards. In accordance with NYSE listing rules applicable to foreign private issuers, HSBC Holdings' Group Chief Executive is not required to provide the NYSE with this annual compliance certification. However, in accordance with rules applicable to both US companies and foreign private issuers, the Group Chief Executive is required promptly to notify the NYSE in writing after any executive officer becomes aware of any material non-compliance with the NYSE corporate governance standards applicable to HSBC Holdings.
HSBC Holdings is required to submit annual and interim written affirmations of compliance with applicable NYSE corporate governance standards, similar to the affirmations required of NYSE-listed US companies.